• Google Plus
  • Facebook
  • Twitter
  • Linkedin
  • Pakistan Agriculture and Farming Cover

    Welcome to PakAgriFarming

    PakAgriFarming is commited to high standards in extension of agriculture in Pakistan through simple and factual information and topics related to the hottest issues in Pakistan Agriculture.

  • Approved cotton varieties for Punjab 2014

    کپاس کی کاشت کے لیے موزوں اقسام

    پنجاب میں کپاس کی کاشت کا آغاز ہو نے والا ہے اور پیشتر علاقوں میں میں رنیع کی فصل کی برداشت کا وقت قرہب ہے۔ اس لیے بروقت کپاس کے بیج کا انتخاب اچھی پیداوار حاصل کرنے کی طرف پہلا قدم ہے۔۔۔

  • Introduction, characteristics and objectives of tillage

    Intoduction and Objectives of Tillage

    Tillage is the primary requirement before any cropping activity. Perhaps, if one is ignorant about tillage, he knows nothing about farming. So, let's look into a brief intro...

  • The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    It's been 10 years since the introduction of tunnel farming in Pakistan, the conversion rate has been slow but are there any chance of rapid growth of tunnel farming in Pakistan? Let's disover...

  • Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Pakistan and staple food. Wheat has a large share of cultivated land in rabi season and hence large production is expected...


Tuesday, September 11, 2012

Plant Science (Phytology) and its Division

Posted by Unknown On Tuesday, September 11, 2012

The world around us is so precious and beautiful. There are numerous varieties of plants around us which are charming, fascination, enchanting and give us the gift of fragrance, fruits, flowers and other necessities of life. According to historians, human beings started domestication of plants around 10,000 B.C and this is the start of agriculture. 

No one among us can deny the importance of plants in our daily life; our survival on this planet Earth is not possible without plants. Plant provide us food, shelter, clothing, wood for construction, medicines and important natural extracts which are part of products of our daily use like herbal soaps and herbal drinks. 
So, human dependence on plants compelled our ancestors to discover, collect, domesticate and investigate various plant species, thus leading to the development of plant science aka phytology (Phyto = plant, logos = to study). This humble beginning led to the modern day agriculture.
Phytology includes both agricultural and botanical aspects of the plants. As a results of efforts of past few centuries, the knowledge has expanded so vast that this can be divided into different divisions.
The important disciplines of phytology are as follows;
i) Taxonomy (aka Systematic Botany) - deals nomenclature and classification of plants.
ii) Morphology - deals study of internal and external plant structures. Anantomy is the study of internal structures.
iii) Physiology - deals the study of internal processes involved in the growth and development of the plants.
iv) Pathology - deals the study of plant diseases which may be fungal, bacterial, nematodal, or viral hence the branches of plant pathology are mycology, bacteriology, nematology and virology. 
v) Mycology - deals with the kingdom fungi, their structure, functions, classification and importance  and so on.
vi) Genetics - deals the study of genes and inheritance in plants.
vii) Breeding - deals with the ways and means of fertilization of the male and female gametes. This is done to improve the desired traits in the plants and helps in development of new and better varieties.
viii) Ecology - deals the relationship of a plant to its biophysical environment.
ix) Cytology - deals structure and function of cell and its organelles. 
x) Molecular Biology - deals the study of structures, functions and exploitation of the molecules of living system such as DNA, RNA and various proteins.
xi) Phytochemistry (aka Plant Biochemistry) - deals various chemical reactions and their mechanisms within the plant cell.
xii) Agriculture - it is the cultivation of soil, including all farm operation and management for the successful crop and animal production.