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Friday, April 19, 2013

Common Commercial Insecticide Formulations available in Punjab, Pakistan

Posted by Unknown On Friday, April 19, 2013


INTRODUCTION
Insecticides form a major proportion of the agricultural products being produced in the country and imported. The importance and impact of the insecticides on the farm can not be denied. Both in terms of the useful and residual effects. Similarly they form a major part of the agriculture industry. There is an excess of availability of the insecticides in the agriculture markets. The product available is of mixed quality from highest standards of the multinational and local companies to the lesser quality products of some of the small local manufacturers.
In my recently concluded agriculture market study, I collected literature related to the insecticides available in the market both from well reputed and local pesticide companies. And in this blog post, I will be highlighting the types of formulations which were available. 
Table: List of Commercially available Formulation of Insecticides common in Punjab

ABBR.
NAME
ABBR.
NAME
EC
Emulsifiable concentrates
SP
Water-soluble Powder
G
Granules
T
Tablets
SC
Suspension Concentrates
WG
Water-dispersible Granules
SE
Suspo-Emulsion
WP
Wettable Powder
SL
Soluble Concentrate
    -
              ---

Description of these formulations is given as under:
(NOTE: Only Chemical Names are mentioned in examples. Brand Names have been excluded due to copyright and piracy basis.)
1) EC – Emulsifiable Concentrates
An EC Formulation
  • Liquid formulations
  • The most widely used formulations along with WP.
  • active ingredient has been dissolved in oil or other solvents
  • Emulsifier has been added
  • Contains 2 – 6 pounds of active ingredient per gallon.
  • Easy to handle and require little agitation.
  • Some crops are sensitive to the ECs of some insecticides;
Examples:
  • Fipronil
  • Permitherin
  • Deltamethrin
  • Chlorpyrifos
Carbofuron Granules
2) G – Granules
  • Dry particles made up of porous materials
  • The percentage of active ingredient is
    • Lower than in an EC (Emulsifiable concentrates)
    • But higher than that of a dust formulation
  • Safer to apply
  •  Most often used as soil treatments
  • Applied directly to the soil or over plants
  • Usually do not cling to plant foliage.
Spinosad
Examples
  • Phorate
  • Carbofuran
  •  Monomehypo
3) SC – Suspension Concentrate
  • A stable Suspension
  • Consists of active ingredient(s) with water as the fluid
  • Intended for dilution with water before use
Examples
  • Alpha Cypermethrin
  • Chlorfenapyr
  •  Spinosad
Emamectin Benzoate
4) SE – Suspo-Emulsion
  • Fluid formulation
  • Heterogeneous formulation
  • Consisting of a stable dispersion of active ingredient(s) in the form of solid particles and of water-non miscible fine globules in a continuous water phase.
Examples
  • Emamectin Benzoate
  • Lufenuron

Imidacloprid
5) SL – Soluble Concentrate
  • Liquid Formulation
  • A clear to opalescent liquid
  • To be applied as a solution of the active ingredient after dilution in water.
  • The liquid may contain water insoluble formulants.
Examples
  • Neonicotinoid
  • Imidacloprid
  • Trichlorfon
Acetamiprid
6) SP – Water Soluble Powder
  • A powder formulation
  • Applied as a true solution of the active ingredient after dissolution in water
  • May contain insoluble inert ingredients
Examples
  • Acetamiprid
  •  Methomyl
7) WG – Water Dispersible Granules
Thiamethoxam
  • Solid Formulation in the form of Granules.
  • Active ingredients upto 90% by weight.
  • Break up into fine particles in water.
  • Constant agitation is required to keep them in suspension form
  • Advantages over WPs
    • They are more easily measured and mixed.
    • Because of low dust, they cause less inhalation hazard to the applicator during handling.
Examples
  • Thiamethoxam
8) WP – Wettable Powder
Dry powdered formulations
Lambda Cyhalothrin
Advantaes:
  • Easy to store, transport and handle.
  • 15 – 95% active ingredient.
  • Most WPs are less likely than ECs to damage sensitive plants.
  • Less damaging to eyes and skin of applicator.
Disadvantages:
  • Inhalation by applicator,
  • Require agitation since they do not form true solutions.
  • Abrasive to pumps and nozzles.
  • Residues on treated surfaces.
Examples
  • Lambda Cyhalothrin
  • Azocyclotin