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PakAgriFarming

Sunday, September 01, 2013

Cropping Technology (CPT) of Carrot (Daucus carota) in Pakistan

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 01, 2013

Carrot (Daucus carota) is a root-crop known for its vitamin rich red/orange roots which are used in making foods and salads. Carrot is known as “apple for the poor” because of its rich in nutrients and low cost. Carrot also has a long list of medical and health benefits for humans. So, farmers should follow modern cropping technology for gaining good yields and profits from this healthy vegetable.
Carrots in Pakistan
Carrots in Pakistan

Botanical Classification

Carrot is a dicot plant.
Daucus carota
Kingdom
Plantae
Division
Magnoliophyta
Order
Apiales
Class
Apiaceae
Genus
Daucus
Species
carota

Climatic Requirements

Carrot is a crop of cold climate. Thus a temperature of 7 to 240C is good for the germination of the crop. Temperatures between 25 and 350C do not give good germination rates and the size of carrot root remains small. Temperatures between 20-250C are best for healthy crop yield.

Soil Requirements

Mera soil in good tilth is highly recommended for good crop growth although carrots can grow in most of the soil types. The carrot remains small in clayey soils and give off many small roots, similarly, high organic manures are also not good for carrot development because they will affect the shape and colour of the carrot. So, for good and healthy carrots, halki mera soils are best.

Varieties

T-29 is recommended by agriculture department of Punjab Govt.

Time of Sowing

Agaiti (early) sowing should be completed by the mid of August whereas pachaiti (late) sowing continues till the end of October. Time from obtaining good yields in Punjab is in the mid of September. Imported varieties are sown in November and December. For good results, the seed should be dipped in water for about 12 hours. Temperatures close to 350C do not give good germination rate.

Seed Rate

Seed rate of 6-8 kg per acre is recommended. Healthy seed with good seed vigor should be selected from trusted sources. Recommended fungicide should also be applied before sowing. In case of agaiti (early) sowing, the seed rate can be increased to 15 kg per acre.
carrot crop Daucus carota
Carrots crop (Daucus carota)

Seedbed Preparation

Fine seedbed should be prepared by plowing the field with deep plough thrice (03 times) at field capacity (wattar). Clods of soil and farm yard manure (FYM) should not be present in the field because they will affect the development of carrot roots. Weeds should also be cleared by daab method before plowing the field.

Fertilizers

1. Organic manures
Organic manures are best option. Well rotten FYM is good for the development of healthy carrot roots whereas, incomplete or mildly rotten FYM causes many roots in the carrots. Organic manure should be spread 2 months earlier to sowing carrots or it can be given to soil one crop earlier in the previous season so that FYM is well mixed when time for carrot sowing arrives.
2. Chemical fertilizers
Nitrogenous fertilizers are not good for carrots. 2 bags of DAP and 1 bag of potash per acre should be well spread in the field at the time of seedbed preparation. 1 bag of ammonium sulphate should be applied after one month of crop stand.

Irrigation Scheduling

Furrows should be made at about 2.5 feet distance in levelled seedbed, seed should be spread by kera method at a depth of 1 cm and cover it with soil. Then field should be irrigated so that the water do not reach the seed directly. Initially, irrigation twice a week and later, once a week is better, or the gap between successive irrigations can be adjusted according to the field conditions. Irrigation should be terminated around 2 weeks before harvest, so that carrots gain sweetness and the uprooting also becomes easy.

Weeding and Thinning

Weeding is good in the early crop development. Weeding during week # 2 to week # 6 should be done to reduce competition for the crop. After that, the crop is healthy enough to compete weeds.
Thinning is also very important for good crop. Thinning should be done so that the plant to plant distance remains 2-3 centimeters. Plants should be uprooted along with roots; both weak and highly vigorous plants should be uprooted during thinning.

Harvest

Carrot matures in 100 to 120 days, but for use as household vegetable, carrot is ready to be harvested in 80-90 days. It should be harvested when diameter of the carrot root reaches about 2-4 centimeters. Irrigation should be terminated 2 weeks earlier to harvest.

Carrots field ready for harvest
Carrots field ready for harvest
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Daab: The practice of weeding the field in which the field is first irrigated and the weeds are allowed to appear, when the weeds have appeared, the field is ploughed after a few days to eradicate the weeds.