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PakAgriFarming

Sunday, September 15, 2013

Production Technology of Wheat in Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

Posted by Unknown On Sunday, September 15, 2013

Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Pakistan and staple food. Wheat has a large share of cultivated land in rabi season and hence large production is expected. The seed selected should be pure, healthy and free of disease. The seed should be bought from trusted sources, or the varieties approved by the local agriculture department should be used for sowing. The germination rate of seed should not be less than 85% or the seed rate should be increased accordingly.
Wheat field rainfed areas
Wheat field
For late sowing (pachaiti kasht), the seed should be increased to some extent because the germination rate is less in low temperature and less number of tiller form. The production of wheat is mainly from primary tiller, so in order to get sufficient produce in late sown crops, seed rate is increased to increase the number of primary tillers. In addition to this, increase in seed rate is also beneficial for the weed control, because in the presence of more wheat seedlings lesser number of weeds will be able to grow.

TIME OF SOWING

Name of variety
Time of sowing
Suitable areas
Chakwal-50
Oct-15 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
NARC-2009
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
Baras-2009
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab
Dhurabi-2011
Oct-20 to Nov-15
All rainfed areas of Punjab

SEED TREATMENT FOR DISEASES

Wheat has a number of prominent diseases like rust, smut and kernel bunt are more damaging. In the cropping season 2012-13, farmers had to face losses due to these diseases so they should use resistant seeds against these varieties. The seeds should also be treated with some fungicide before sowing.

SEEDBED PREPARATION

The field should be ploughed after the first monsoon rain with chisel or moldboard plow, so that the field is ploughed to considerable depth and later plank it. Then the field should be ploughed after every monsoon rain, this will store water in the soil as well as uproot the weeds. All the required fertilizers should be added to the soil 02 days before cultivation, the field should be ploughed and leveled so that wattar should reach the soil surface. All of the fertilizer should be added to the soil before seed sowing. Seed drill should be used for seed sowing.

SEED RATE

For all irrigated and rainfed areas of punjab
For sowing till Nov-20
50 kg per acre
The germination rate should not be less than 85% or the seed rate should be increased appropriately.
For sowing between Nov-21 to Dec-15
60 kg per acre
Number of tillers formed in Chakwal-50 is greater than other varieties, so the seedrate should be kept 5 kg lesser than the other varieties.

USE OF FERTILIZERS

Phosphorus is an essential element for wheat, it stimulates increase in the root length, provide strength to tillers, thickens the grain and stimulate immunity against many diseases. So the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus should be 1:1.5, this means 1.5 bags of DAP and 1.5 bags of urea should be used. If phosphorus is used in lesser quantity, it weakens the plant, the plant remains green, the crop takes more time for ripening and the immunity against diseases also declines. So, the ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus is very important. It can guarantee an increase of about 5-10 mand per acre.
Table: Recommended quantities of the fertilizers for use in the rainfed areas according to the amount of rainfall in those areas.
Annual Rain
Annual rainfall
Nutrients (kg per acre)
Quantity to be used in field before sowing
Nitrogen
Phosphorus
Potash
Low rainfall areas
(Rajanpur, Layyah, D.G Khan, Muzzafargarh, Mianwali and Khushab)
Less than 350 mm
12
23
23
1 bag DAP + ¾ bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
2 ½ bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
2 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Moderate rainfall areas
(Chakwal, Pindi Gheb, Tila Ganng and Pind Dadan Khan)
350 - 500 mm
12
46
46
2 bags DAP + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
5 bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 2 bags Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
4 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate
High rainfall areas
(Rawalpindi, Attack, Jehlum, Narowal, Gujrat, Sohawa, Khariyaan and Shakargarh)
More than 500 mm
12
46
46
2 bags DAP + 1 bag Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
5 bags Single Super Phosphate (SSP) + 2 bags Urea + ½ bag potassium sulfate
Or
4 bags Nitrophos + ½ bag potassium sulfate

GREEN MANURES

Green and organic manures are very important for a healthy crop stand. If animal dung is available during the time of field preparation, then 8-10 tons per acre (800-1000 kg) should be used. Another option is green manuring, if time is available than some legume crop should be sown in the field and at time of flowering it should be ploughed into the soil, this will increase the organic matter contents of the soil to great levels. Green manuring with leguminous crops should be only done once in three years.

WEEDING

Weed eradication from the field is one of the methods to increase the production from the same piece of land. According to an estimate, wheat production can be increased 14-42% if the weeds are properly eradicated from the field. Following strategies can be opted for weed management;

1. HIGH SEEDRATE

If the seed rate is high, it means there will be more plants per acre and more competition for the weeds and less nutrients for them. So the weeds can lose in this competition.

2. BAR HARROW

If it rains withing 18-20 days of sowing, then bar harrow should be used twice in the field. It is one of the best methods of weed control. Wattar condition also prolongs if such method is followed.

3. HOEING

Manual weeding with khurpa and kasola in the dry field is also very effective method in controlling the weeds but only if enough labor is available.

PRODUCTION OF PURE SEED FOR FUTURE USE

Each farmer should try to produce his own seed for future use. And to get pure, healthy and quality seed, the farmer should follow these instructions carefully;
1. Only the recommended varieties should be cultivated.
2. Plants of other varieties should be uprooted from the field.
3. Plant with smut disease should be uprooted; put in some bags and removed from the wheat field. Such plants should be buried in the soil away from the cultivated lands.
4. Irrigation and fertilizer requirements of the fields intended for seed production should be fulfilled at all times and at all cost.
5. Different varieties of wheat should be cultivated in different plots.
6. The thresher should be cleaned before and after threshing of every different variety of wheat to maintain varietal purity.
7. Name of the variety should be written on the bags.
8. The moisture contents of the seeds for storage should not be more than 10%.
9. Seed should be stored in well lighted and ventilated storehouse.