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  • Pakistan Agriculture and Farming Cover

    Welcome to PakAgriFarming

    PakAgriFarming is commited to high standards in extension of agriculture in Pakistan through simple and factual information and topics related to the hottest issues in Pakistan Agriculture.

  • Approved cotton varieties for Punjab 2014

    کپاس کی کاشت کے لیے موزوں اقسام

    پنجاب میں کپاس کی کاشت کا آغاز ہو نے والا ہے اور پیشتر علاقوں میں میں رنیع کی فصل کی برداشت کا وقت قرہب ہے۔ اس لیے بروقت کپاس کے بیج کا انتخاب اچھی پیداوار حاصل کرنے کی طرف پہلا قدم ہے۔۔۔

  • Introduction, characteristics and objectives of tillage

    Intoduction and Objectives of Tillage

    Tillage is the primary requirement before any cropping activity. Perhaps, if one is ignorant about tillage, he knows nothing about farming. So, let's look into a brief intro...

  • The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

    It's been 10 years since the introduction of tunnel farming in Pakistan, the conversion rate has been slow but are there any chance of rapid growth of tunnel farming in Pakistan? Let's disover...

  • Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat Production Technology for Rainfed Areas of Punjab for 2013-14

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop in Pakistan and staple food. Wheat has a large share of cultivated land in rabi season and hence large production is expected...


Friday, March 23, 2018

Wheat Intercropping with standing Cotton Crop - Cropping Technology

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Friday, March 23, 2018

Due to late cultivation of wheat and decrease in the area under wheat cultivation, the production of wheat is greatly being affected. This delay in the time of wheat sowing and reduction in area under wheat cultivation is due to cotton.  

Wednesday, February 07, 2018

Pinellia ternata, Chinese Medicinal Herb

Posted by Unknown On Wednesday, February 07, 2018

Pinellia ternata, Chinese medicinal herb, a potential focus of scientist for genome study.

Sunday, November 02, 2014

Jobs in Government Educators School for Agri Graduates

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Sunday, November 02, 2014

In the recently announced Educators job in government schools of Punjab, Pakistan, agriculture graduates of all the disciples are said to be eligible against the following posts;

Friday, September 12, 2014

BS (4 Years) Agriculture Admissions open in Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Lahore

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Friday, September 12, 2014

BS Agriculture (04 Years Program) Admissions open at



Tuesday, May 06, 2014

Farm Manager Jobs at Layer Farms

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Tuesday, May 06, 2014

Khushhal Feed & Farms Pvt. Ltd. is offering jobs for "Manager (Layer Farm)".
The layer farms are located in and around Islamabad. 

Experience & Qualification

D.V.M or MS Poultry Science with minimum 1 year experience.


Depending upon experience of the candidate.

Last date to apply


Contact details:

Given in the following ad.

Thursday, April 10, 2014

Kinds of Tillage Operations

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Thursday, April 10, 2014

As we have discussed earlier, Tillage is the mechanical manipulation of the soil with tools and implements to make soil conditions suitable for better seed germination and crop growth whereas, tilth is a physical condition of the soil resulting from tillage.
Conceptual map of kinds of Tillage Operations
Here we will discuss about types of tillage operations;
1. On Season Tillage: Tillage operations performed at the start of or during the cropping seasons. (June–July or Sept.–Oct.).
They are of two main types;
1. Preparatory Tillage
2. Intercultivation (or Inter tillage)
2. Off Season Tillage: Tillage operations carried out during fallow or non-cropped periods (summer).
3. Special Types of Tillage: As the name refers, these tillage operations are carried out with some special objective.

1. On Season Tillage

The tillage operations performed during the onset of cropping season to preparation of seedbed for better crop growth and later during the crop stand, are called on-season tillage operations.
A. Preparatory Tillage
The tillage carried for preparing a piece of land for cropping.
a) Primary tillage
Primary tillage operations constitute initial cutting and inverting of soil after previous crop or fallow tillage. The depth of primary tillage operations range from 10-30 cm. The soil loosens and opens as a result of plowing and planking, providing good tilth.
The main objective is to control weeds to incorporate crop stubbles and to restore soil structure.
b) Secondary tillage
Primary tillage operation do not leave fine soil and leaves cracks and crevices. To get fine tilth, shallow tillage operations are carried out to cover the crevices and break the clods left after primary tillage. The soil is stirred and clods are broken. In addition, mixing of fertilizers and mulching, harrowing, pulverizing and ridges and furrows are also made during secondary tillage operations.
c) Seed bed preparation
Shallow operations carried out for fine seedbed preparation are carried out as final steps for cultivation of crops. The main purpose is weed control and structural development of the soil.
B. Inter Tillage/Inter Cultivation
The tillage operations carried after sowing of the crops and before the harvest are called inter-tillage operations. These include hoeing, harrowing, inter-cultivation of other crops etc.
The main purposes are to root-out weeds and incorporation of fertilizers or manures.

2. Off Season Tillage

Tillage operations for improvement and conditioning of the soil during off-season (uncropped season) are carried out with the objective of leaching to remove salts for reclamation, water conservation, control of pest population and disease vectors in the soil.
a) Post harvest tillage
Tillage operations carried out after the harvest of crops to root-out the stubbles of the previous crop and weeds with the objectives of water conservation and conserving soil structure are called post-harvest or stubble tillage operations.
b) Summer tillage
Tillage operations carried out during summer with the objectives to control pests and disease pathogens, reducing soil erosion and conservation of soil moisture as well as retaining the rain water through summer showers. It affects the soil aggregates, organic matter but it may favor wind
c) Winter tillage
Winter tillage refers to the tillage operations carried out in during winter season in the temperate areas with low temperatures. The fields are plowed and harrowing is done to root out weeds and improve physical conditions of the soil.
d) Fallow tillage
Fallow tillage refers to the tillage practices carried over an arable land in uncropped land. The objectives are to root out all the weeds and destruction of the pathogens or eggs of insect pests in the soil. Soil is vulnerable to wind and other types of erosion when tilled in fallow condition.

3. Special Types

Special type tillage includes
a) Sub-Soiling
Sub-soiling is unlike other tillage operations which involves breaking of hardpan formed in the field. The hardpan is cut open with subsoiler or chisel plow. The soil is not inverted in this operation. It is done once in 4–5 years where there is a colossal loss of topsoil due to carelessness.
b) Land Leveling
Land leveling is major requirement for better crop stand and fair distribution of irrigation water. Hence, levelers and scrapers are used for land leveling. Leveling has its own advantages of resistance to soil erosion and help in other operations.
c) Puddling
Tillage operations doing in standing water for preparation of field for rice cultivation. The conditions are anaerobic.
Other types include;
d) Strip tillage – tillage in strips
e) Strip tillage - Ploughing is done as a narrow strip by mixing and tilling the soil leaving the
remaining soil surface undisturbed.
f) Clean tillage refers to cleaning the entire field of the plants with the objective to control soil borne pathogens and eggs of pests. All the plants are uprooted and soil is turned.
g) Ridge tillage refers to forming ridges by ridge former or ridge plough with the objective of
sowing the seeds.
h) Conservation tillage refers to tillage practices implemented for purpose of conservation of soil moisture. In these practices, mulch is retained on the surface of soil.
The important criteria of a conservation tillage system are:
i) Contour tillage refers the preparation of contours for cultivation. This reduces soil erosion.
i) Blind tillage refers to tillage done after sowing the crop and either at the pre-emergence stage or during the early stages of crop growth so that crop plants are damaged, the purpose is to uproot the weeds.

Read about the Characteristics and Objectives of Tillage.. Click HERE

Sunday, March 23, 2014

کپاس کی کاشت کے لیے موزوں بی ٹی اقسام برائے سال

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Sunday, March 23, 2014

       محکمہ زراعت، حکومتِ پنجاب کی طرف سے اس سال کے لیے درج ذیل بی ٹی کپاس کے اقسام تجویز کی گئی ہیں۔
Approved varieties of cotton for 2014 in Pakistan

Monday, March 17, 2014

Introduction to Tillage

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Monday, March 17, 2014

Tillage is the mechanical manipulation of the soil with tools and implements to make soil conditions suitable for better seed germination and crop growth whereas, tilth is a physical condition of the soil resulting from tillage.
Tillage disc plowing in the field pakagrifarming

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

The Next 10 Years of Tunnel Farming in Pakistan

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Is tunnel farming the solution for problems of progressive farmers in Pakistan? Is the tunnel technology becoming popular in Pakistan? The answers to these questions is very sophisticated and the progress in the acceptance to the tunnel technology has been slow since its introduction in the country around ten years ago. The intensive, out-of-season farming carried out in tunnels is certainly promising both in terms of production and income return to the farmer.
Tunnel farming in Pakistan
Fruit & Vegetable Development Project (FDVP)
The first major project related to tunnel farming was ‘fruit & vegetable development project’ approved by agriculture department of the government of Punjab in 2005. It was one of the flag-bearing initiatives which lead the way forward for establishing the importance of tunnel farming in Pakistan. In the first phase of promoting tunnel farming, six tehsils were selected for establishing model tunnels with the assistance of progressive farmers. The program also included extension services through ‘farmer field schools’ and training of extension workers for helping farming regarding tunnel farming. 

Role of Non-Government Organizations and Internet

In the recent times of freedom of speech, care for rights and bulk of funding from private agencies, a number of non-government organizations have also stepped in for farmer awareness. The work done by NGOs, agricultural corporation and agri-based websites in Pakistan have also sprung up to a record level. This has helped the common farmer and especially the educated and progressive farmer community is taking most of the advantage from the services of these sources for awareness, feasibility reports, on-field training and other sorts of guidance. 
There are many agriculture website, Facebook & google+ pages and online newspapers who have done commendable efforts to promote tunnel farming in Pakistan and PakAgriFarming has also been up to the task, ensuring the right agri-knowledge has reached to the concerned agri-community.

Promises and Issues

The most plausible feature of tunnel farming has always been the high yields and good income return rates. Once established, the tunnels can be ‘the gold egg laying hens’ for the farmers. Vertical farming of cucurbits, tomato, chilies, melons, gourds and other vegetables is cost-effective and the vegetables are also rich in nutrition. 
The issues, however, seem much like a big hurdle from the initial cost of setting up the basic structure for tunnels (especially high tunnels and walk through tunnels to some extent), requirements of high rates of fertilizer application, elevated use of fungicide and herbicide sprays. These factors considered together might have implications of their own.
The initial cost of setting up, may be high but, once setup the returns are high and the income return rates are high compared to any other form of cultivation practices. Then is the issue of management, the yield is only as good as the farm manager wants to; so if the tunnels are maintained with diligence there would be no issues of malnutrition, exhaustion of soil nutrients and the yields will be enormous. 

Present Scenario and the Way Forward for Tunnel Technology in Pakistan

The future of tunnel farming is bright in Pakistan and the adoption rate of the farmers to this technology has been progressive in the recent years and more tunnels are being established. Tunnels can now be seen in almost 70% agricultural lands of Punjab, and fewer in Sindh, too. Most of the agricultural zones which have potential for vegetables and fruits cultivation is attracted to tunnel farming. 
Then there is the support programs by the government agriculture departments, NGOs and commercial bank have also offered attractive loan schemes for setting up tunnels. The progressive farmers who own greater pieces of land can benefits from these schemes as well as medium farmer who have less than 10 acres of land. 
So, keeping in view the recent improvements and promotion packages, the acreage of land with tunnels is expected to expand to almost 25-40% of all the cultivated land in Punjab, and around 10% of cultivated lands in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Sindh. The high number of tunnels will also mean a change in the cropping patterns, technologies, implements and inputs. This will also affect the dominant agricultural commodities in the markets and the zones will haves to be defined. 

The Winds of Change

The support from government may also decrease with increased number of farmers associated with tunnels, however, the loan schemes from banks are going to be the turning point if tunnel farming growth is to be continued. 
We will be witnessing a change in the agricultural landscape since agricultural land is already shrinking at accelerated rates in the recent years due to poor land reforms from the government, lack of control over the housing societies and unfair taxation policy for the farmers. In the light of all these events, tunnel farming can be a relief for the farmer community in coming five to ten years.

Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Rice Straw Mulch in Zero Tillage Wheat

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Wednesday, January 22, 2014

Wheat is a cereal crop of immense importance to us, and the demand is fulfilled at the cost of soil poisoning and contamination through a number of pesticides, herbicides and excess of fertilizers. Zero tillage has become popular among the progressive farmers and serves as an economical method to conserve soil moisture, nutrients and labor force. Mulching on the other hand has benefits of conserving moisture in the field and others.

Wednesday, November 20, 2013

ٹماٹر کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Wednesday, November 20, 2013

ٹماٹر پاکستان میں انتہائی مقبول سبزی کی حیثیت رکھتا ہے۔  اس کا زیادہ تر استعمال کھانا پکانے میں ہوتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ ٹماٹر کا اہم استعمال کیچپ میں ہوتا ہے۔ اس لیٔے پاکستان میں ٹماٹر کی کاشت کسان کے لیٔے منافع بخش ثابت ہوسکتی ہے۔ اس لیٔے ضروری ہے کہ ٹماٹر کی کاشت جدید پیداواری طریقہ کار سے کی جانی چاہیے۔ ذیل میں 
زرعی ماہرین کی تجاویز پر مبنی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی دی جا رہے ہے۔

Tomato Production Technology in Pakistan urdu language
زمین کا انتخاب        
ٹماٹر کے لیٔے اچھی نکاسیٔ آب کی حامل زرخیز زمین کو منتخب کیا جائے۔
وقتِ کاشت  
جولائی تا ستمبر
جولائی تا اکتوبر
ستمبر، اکتوبر یا اپریل
جون تا اگست
خیبر پختونخواہ
نرسری کی تیاری
زمین پر ایک فٹ اونچے، چار فٹ چوڑے اور چھ فٹ لمبے بیڈ بنا لیں۔ اور چوڑائی کے رُخ آدھا انچ گہری لائنیں بنائیں جن کا کا درمیانی فاصلہ کم سے کم ۲ انچ تک ہو۔ اس مقصد کے لیٔے ڈیڑھ انچ قطر کا سریہ یا چھڑی بھی استعمال کی جا سکتی ہے۔
بعد ازاں بیج کو ان لائینوں کے درمیان اس طرح ڈالیں کہ بیج ایک دوسرے کے اوپر نہ آئیں۔ پھربیجوں کو مٹی سے ڈھانپ دیں اور مناسب مقدار میں پانی لگا دیں۔
نرسری کی منتقلی
تیارشدہ نرسری کی منتقلی سے ۲ دن پہلے نرسری میں پانی دینا بند کر دیں تاکہ پودے سخت جان ہو جائیں۔ اور پھر منتقلی سے تقریباً ۲ یا ۳ گھنٹے پہلے پانی لگائیں تاکہ پودوں کو اُکھاڑنا آسان ہو سکے۔
شرحِ بیج
 گرام فی ایکڑ80  تا60
                                                             فی ایکڑ10,000  سے 8,000 : پودوں کی تعداد
طریقہِ کاشت
فٹ کی پٹڑی5  فٹ سے4.5
دو طرفہ بیجائی کی صورت میں
پودے سے پودے کا فاصلہ
کھادوں کا استعمال    
بوری پوٹاش 2+ بوری ہوریا 1/2+ بوری ڈی اے پی 2
بیجائی کے وقت
آدھی بوری یوریا
پہلی کھاد کے
ہفتے بعد 4-3
ایک نائٹروفاس
دوسری کھاد کے
ہفتے بعد 4-3
نرسری کی منتقلی کے دوران جڑوں کو کسی کمرشل اور قابلِ اعتماد بائیو فرٹیلائزر کے محلول میں ۲۰منٹ کے لیٔے بھگو کر کھیت میں لگانا مفید ہو سکتا ہے۔
بائیو فرٹیلائیزر کا استعمال
فصل اور زمین کی ضرورت کے مطابق مائیکرو نیوٹرینٹ والی کھاد کا استعمال کیا جانا ضروری ہے۔
دیگر مائیکرو نیوٹرینٹ کھادوں کا استعمال
نرسری کھیت میں منتقل کرتے وقت پانی دینا ضروری ہے اور بعد میں ہفتہ وار پانی لگائیں۔ موسمی صورتِ حال اور فصل کی ضرورت کے مطابق پانی کی مقدار اور وقفے میں تبدیلی لائی جا سکتی ہے۔
ٹماٹر کی بیماریاں اورکیڑے اور انکا تدارک
ٹماٹر کے پودے پر تیلا، سفید مکھی، چور کیڑا اور لیف مائینر کا حملہ ہو سکتا ہے۔ اس کے علاوہ جڑوں کا گلنا اور جراثیمی سوکھنا عام بیماریاں ہیں جن کے تدارک کے لیٔے محکمۂ زراعت کے نمائندے کے مشورے سے ادویات کا استعمال کریں۔
وقتِ برداشت
پھل کی برداشت ضرورت کے مطابق کریں ارو اگر پھل دور لے کر جانا مقصود ہو تو پھل کو سبز حالت میں برداشت 

Saturday, October 12, 2013

گندم کی ترقی دادہ اقسام کی علاقہ وار تقسیم اور وقتِ کاشت برائے 14-2013

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Saturday, October 12, 2013

گندم پاکستان کی ایک اہم ترین فصل ہے اور پاکستانیوں کی بنیادی غذا کا درجہ رکھتی ہے۔ پاکستان میں گندم وسیع پیمانے پہ کاشت کی جاتی ہے اور ملک کے تقریباً تمام علاقوں میں کاشت کی جاتی ہے۔ اس سلسلے میں پاک ایگریفارمنگ پر پہلے بھی بارانی علاقوں میں گندم کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی دی گئی ہے اور 
اب ملک کےچار بڑے صوبوں کے لیٔے گندم کے ترقی دادہ اقسام ذیل میں دی جا رہی ہیں۔
wheat varieties for cultivation in pakistan 2013-14 article in urdu

Monday, October 07, 2013

Introduction to Hybrid Seeds

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Monday, October 07, 2013

Hybrid seeds are the F1 off springs of the two distinct parent varieties from the same species.
Introduction to Hybrid Seeds (cover)
Introduction to Hybrid Seeds (cover)

Monday, September 30, 2013

کینولا کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Monday, September 30, 2013

موجودہ دور میں جہاں دیگر غذائی اجناس کی اہمیت ہے، وہاں پر سرسوں کی پیداوار بھی بہت اہم ہے۔ کیونکہ یہ نہ صرف غذائی  ضروریات پوری کرتا ہے بلکہ خوردنی تیل کا مآخذ بھی ہے۔ حرفِ عام میں اسے 
کینولا کہا جاتا ہے۔ ذیل میں کینولا کی پیداواری ٹیکنالوجی دی جا رہی ہے۔

Production technology of canola 2013-14 in urdu

Thursday, September 26, 2013

Beneficial Uses of Weeds

Posted by Muhammad Shakil Shaukat On Thursday, September 26, 2013

Weeds, the plants out of their proper place, have been known to cause many damages andlosses to crops and some are also known to cause health hazards. A number of management strategies for weeds are also adopted. But there are some uses of these weeds. 
Latana camara inflorescence
Latana camara inflorescence